An object in motion seems to stay in motion along a straight line until an outside force acts on it. When a person starts learning more about physics, they plan to study the associated energy and force entities. Laws of gravity, elasticity, level, and gears, explaining motion and fluid pressure, are all terms covered in the subject of forces by physics's scientific discipline.
The GCSE Physics Syllabus is a perfect choice for those interested in a research career involving acquiring physics fundamentals. It can be learned during the last two years of high school and offered by the examination boards.
The fifth subject of the GCSE Physics Syllabus, also known as powers, provided by the AQA review board, is examined by Superprof. Now, who is ready for a scientific article?
Scalar and Vector Quantities
For making measurements, scientists are well recognized. It is possible to split the physical amounts that they calculate into two groups: scalar and vector.
Scalar quantities have only a magnitude or a size. Here are some examples:
- Temperature: measured in Fahrenheit or Celsius.
- Mass: measured in kilograms or pounds.
- Energy: measured using joules at all times.
- Distance: measured in meters, kilometers, or miles.
- Speed: kilometers per hour (km/h) or using meters per second (m/s).
- Density: It is measured in kilograms per cubic meter more often but can also be using grams per cubic centimeter.
It has both magnitude and related direction; vector quantities are a bit more advanced than scalar amounts. The following are examples:
- Force: calculated to the left with newtons.
- Displacement: measured with distance units, such as kilometers or miles east.
- Velocity: estimated upwards using meters.
- Acceleration: it is possible to use meters per second squared downwards as an example.
- Momentum: kilogram meters can be an example per second.
Contact and Non-Contact Forces
Forces are accountable for any interaction between objects and particles. They can be split into touch and non-contact powers quickly.
These are the forces that work between two objects that contact one another physically. The four different examples of contact forces:
- Reaction force: is defined as an entity on a surface at rest.
- Tension: This takes place when an object is extending.
- Friction: when two things slip past each other and cause forces of friction.
- Air resistance: As an item travels around in the air, this occurs.
Two forces that act between but do not affect one another physically are called non-contact forces. Instances of non-contact powers:
- Magnetic force: encountered in a magnetic field by any magnetic item.
- Electrostatic force: any charged particle that is in an electric field will experience this.
- Gravitational force: any object that is in the gravitational field will feel this.
Gravitational fields are produced by all objects with mass, and the more mass an item has, the greater the gravitational field.
To learn more about the physics of space check out this article.
Gravitational field strength (g) is measure in newtons per kilogram (N/kg)
The Earth's gravitational field power is 9.8 N/kg. Hence, this implies that an object would feel 9.8N of force for every kilogram of mass. A weaker gravitational field occurs; an object's weight is less than if the gravitational field was more vital.
Weight calculated using an equation in which the weight (W) measured in newtons, the mass (m) measured in kilograms (kg), and the strength of the gravitational force (g) measured in newtons per kilogram (N/kg). The equation is:
weight = mass x gravitational field strength, or W = m g
Energy transmits from one store to another when a force causes an object to move; work is complete. A simple equation is used to quantify function: work done = force x distance or W = F s
Work done (W) is measured in joules (J), the force (F) is measured in joules, and the distance which moves along the line of action of the force (s) is measured in meters (m).
Free body diagrams
Free body diagrams model the force acting upon an object. Box or dot shows an object in the graph, while force displays as arrows pointing away from the box.
Find out more about the particle theory of matter.
The resultant force is found when two forces are added together. At right angles to each other, a single force can be broken down into two component strengths.
In this section, vector diagrams are taught. Students mostly learn, with the help of their maths and physics tutor, how to draw them.
Forces and Elasticity
Forces are responsible for object modification. By bending, stretching, or compressing, the object can change shape, or even a combination of all three is possible for some shape changes.
A shapeshift to be known as deformation. There are two types of deformation :
- When an object undergoes elastic deformation, it is reversed to its original shape after the force is removed when an object undergoes elastic deformation.
- Afterward, the force is removed in an inelastic deformation. Permanent damage may be found by not changing the material to its original shape.
An extension is when an object grows in length and when it reduces in length, compression happens. An elastic object extension can be defined using the Hooke's Law equation.:
u force = spring constant x extension; or F = K e
The force (F) is measured in newtons (N) in this equation, the spring constant (K) is measured in newtons per meter (N/m), and the extension (e) is measured in meters (m).
Force-extension graphs are great for visual learners since the force (N), extension (m), and proportionality limit can be seen.
The potential energy stored in a spring student learns more about and completes a necessary practice that aims to investigate the force and extension for a spring.
Remember: You can find an online Physics tutor on Superprof.
Learn more about power, work and efficiency.
Moments, Levers, and Gears
A moment is a force's burning effect. They function clockwise or counterclockwise, and a simple equation can be used to determine the magnitude of a moment.:
moment of a force = force x distance, or M = F d
Levers are made up of three fundamental artifacts: a pivot, an effort, and a load. Many examples depend on levers' configuration, such as a see-saw, crowbar, scissors, wheelbarrow, and cooking tongs.
Force multipliers acted as levers to make use of moments. They make moving oversized items a lot easier. The longer the lever, the higher the load force would be.
Learn about atomic structure here.
Gears are wheels that spin on an axle or shaft with toothed edges. The parts of the small gear and the larger one must fit into each other perfectly.
Pressure in Fluids
The force per unit area is pressure.
Pressure (p) measure in Pascal (Pa), force (F) measured in Newton (N), and area determined in square meters. The pressure in fluids causes a natural force to a surface.
pressure = height of column x density of the liquid x gravitational field strength
In this section, the Upthrust force is also clarified to deepen the awareness of the student.
Atmospheric pressure is caused by air molecules colliding with a surface, and it decreases as the height above ground level increases. That is why aircraft cabins flying at high altitudes need to be pressurized.
How far an object is going and the speed, which is the distance shift rate, can be affected depending on age, terrain, health, and distance traveled while discussing motion in a straight line. distance travelled = speed x time
Study about the physics of waves.
Velocity and Acceleration
Velocity is described as a speed in a specific direction of a specific object. The velocity measures by displacement use in calculations rather than distance.
Acceleration is defined as the amount that velocity changes per unit of time.
The distance-time graphs and velocity-time graphs are used to help design faster moving vehicles and evaluate acceleration.
Forces, Acceleration, and Newton's Laws
Newton's Three Laws of motion:
- Until a resulting force acts on it, an object remains in the same state of motion,
- A simple equation is used to explain the second law of motion.
resultant force = mass x acceleration
- two objects interact, they exert equal and opposite forces on each other.
To ace this section, you may engage a maths and physics tutor.
Momentum can be defined as a mixture of mass and velocity. It is also a vector quantity, meaning that it has both a magnitude and a direction associated with it.
momentum = mass x velocity or p = m v
Dive deeper into the physics of electromagnetic waves.
Conservation of Momentum
A "closed system" is something that external forces do not affect. It is also called the principle of momentum conservation—these conserved using collisions and explosions.
Physics is limited to science, but we can also apply it to our social problem-solving, as it is scientifically proven that the object can not be at rest or in constant motion if forces are not balanced. In daily cases, turning forces can be found and are necessary for machines to operate correctly.
Force and momentum are essential ideas to understand, and there is a shift of speed that can be observed when a force acts on an object that is moving.
Read more about electricity in physics.
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Get an overview of high school physics.